Frequently Asked Questions
If you have any concerns please read this collection of frequently asked questions before contacting us. If
you are still unclear about something feel free to contact.
Unless you have been identified with any complications, it is perfectly safe to travel during pregnancy. Most women find the second trimester the most ideal time to travel as you are done with the morning sickness of the first trimester and won’t get as easily tired as one does in their third trimester. Indian airline carriers allow women to travel up to 32 weeks of their pregnancy.
In a normal pregnancy, you can be expected to come in for a check up on the following days:
• 4 weeks to 28 weeks: 1 visit/month
• 28 weeks to 36 weeks: 1 visit/2 weeks
• 36 weeks to 40 weeks: 1 visit/week
If it is a high-risk pregnancy such as twins, advanced age of women or a complicated pregnancy, your doctor may want to see you more often depending on your condition.
Your body will undergo a multitude of changes as you go through your pregnancy. The most obvious change is your abdomen. It will start looking globular by 12 weeks, an ovoid shape by 28 weeks and turns spherical beyond 36 weeks. The change in the shape of your abdomen is accompanied by slight discomfort, gastric reflux and stretch marks over the next 9 months.
The breasts become larger and the areola becomes darker as the pregnancy advances. Your skin may undergo changes such as stretch marks on your buttocks, thighs and abdomen in the second half of pregnancy. Hyperpigmentation of the umbilicus, nipples, abdominal midline & face may be seen due to the hormonal changes in pregnancy. Spider veins and reddening of the palms is commonly seen due to hyperdynamic circulation.
Sometimes, there is change in growth rate and texture of nails and hair. Feet and ankles swell during pregnancy due to the increased fluid carried by the body. Leg cramps may occur due to the excessive fluid, shortage of calcium and phosphorus and fluctuation of hormones.
A healthy weight gain in pregnancy is 11 kg– 1 kg in the first trimester, 5kg in the second trimester and 5kg in the third trimester. Anything between 11- 17 kgs is taken as a normal weight gain of pregnancy. There is an increase in your body temperature which will get back to normal by the 16th week. Due to increased ligament laxity, many women suffer from back pain during their pregnancy.
Before meeting your urologist for the first time, here’s a checklist of items you should be prepared:
1. All symptoms along with their characteristics and duration
2. All recent medical tests such as blood tests, urine tests, etc.
3. If you have any existing medical conditions, bring along your prescription and related medical information
4. Information about your history
5. Your insurance details or Hospital Card, if the hospital is on your panel.
In Nigeria, it is expected 12 % of the population is expected to have urinary stones, with recurrent stones a possibility, in almost 50% of stone patients.
Kidney stones are normally due to an extra build-up of calcium, uric acid, oxalates or phosphates in urine.
Causes of kidney stones:
1. Due to recurrent infections, such as UTI.
2. Hot climate increase the concentration of solutes in urine
3. Dehydration: People who drink less than the recommended 8 – 10 glasses of water may be susceptible to kidney stones
4. Metabolic causes such as hyperparathyroidism, Gout
5. Immobilization (such as a paraplegic patient), sedentary life style
6. Randall’s plaques
7. Renal anomalies like PUJ obstruction.
8. Family history of stone formers
9. Some drugs leads to stone formation
Per the Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics (NJP), the following schedule is necessary for children:
National Immunization Program:
• At Birth – Tuberculosis (BCG), Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), Hepatitis B -1
• At 6 weeks – Diphtheria w1 (DTP), OPV1
• At 10 weeks – DTPw2, OPV2
• At 14 weeks – DPTw3, OPV3
• 9 months – Measles
• 15 month and 5 yrs MMR and Chicken Pox
• 18-24 months – DTPw B1, OPV B1 (Booster)
• 5 years - DTB2, OPVB2
How ever the additional vaccinations are as follow:
Rotavirus oral To prevent against Rota viral infection two to three doses along with DPT/Polio
• Pneumococcal Vaccination :To prevent against pneumococcal pneumonia 3 doses and a booste along with DPT vaccination
• Hepatitis A 2 doses at one year and 2nd dose six months later.
• Beside these additional vaccination for Flu, Meningococcal and Rabies ( in special situations)
Consult your Pediatrician for details.
New born are prone to catch infections if they go in public places. As a newborn’s immune system is still developing, it is preferable to take a newborn in an airplane not before 4– 6 months. If it’s an emergency, it is strongly suggested that the baby needs to be at least 2 months before flying. The policy in Indian airline carriers is 7 – 14 days of age. Please do not let any body touch or kiss your new born and take strict hygeinic precautions.
One should never use a cotton bud for the ear canal of a child; the eardrum is delicate and can be ruptured.The cotton bud only pushes the wax in and does not help bringing it out. Do not put cotton buds in the ears. If the buildup of the wax is troubling, show it to your doctor and if they agree, they will remove it. You can use cotton buds to clean the outer ear, along the outline of the ear with warm water or oil.
While a proper diagnosis can only be given by a trained physician, there are symptoms that you can look out for that may be due to arthritis:
1. Joint pain (especially in the fingers, feet and knees)
2. Joint swelling
4. Joint redness and warmth
5. Joint deformity
6. Loss of range of motion of joints
7. Involvement of multiple joints
8. Loss of joint function
9. Joint stiffness
11. The joints on both sides are affected
If you notice any one or more of the above symptoms, consult us immediately.
One can strengthen their bones in the following manner:
1. A balanced diet: Eat fresh, locally produced fruits and vegetables and try to avoid processed foods, refined sugars & white flour. Multi vitamin tablets should be considered to boost up the nutritional status
2. Exercise: Exercising helps in strengthening the muscles around the joints and delays bone loss. The key is to be regular and slowly increase your activity level.
3. Get adequate Vitamin D: Start your day soaking in the sun or take Vitamin D to reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
4. Decrease your stress levels as cortisol (stress hormone) has a detrimental effect on bones. Try mediation or join a hobby to decrease your stress levels.
5. Try avoiding acidic food and fizzy drinks to protect bone loss.
Healthy eating means consuming the right portions (Quantity) of foods from all food groups to lead a healthy life. We need a wide range of nutrients to lead a healthy and an active life style. The requirement of nutrient keeps changing in different phase of life.
For e.g. Infancy would require breastfeed for 6 month followed by good weaning, whereas a preschooler a balanced diet ,more of proteins containing the essential food groups and nutrients - vitamin A, C, calcium, iron and zinc.
A Healthy good diet should be fitting in your nutritional lifestyle and not lifestyle fitting in diet, if later is followed compliance would be only for a short span.
Diet in pregnancy needs to be carefully planned under the supervision of a gynecologist and dietician. What you will eat will ultimately benefit your baby therefore experts’ advice to consume nutritious meals for an overall development of fetus. Typically, you will need to consume an extra 300 calories a day, additional 15gms of protein , 1000mg of calcium , 30mg of iron. Your prenatal diet should primarily consist of:
• Fruits and vegetables
• Lean proteins
• Whole grains
• Dairy products
• Coconut water